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César Atoute BADIATE, condamné à la perpétuité et signataire des accords de paix avec l’Etat du Sénégal

L’accord de dépôt d’armes signé à Bissau entre l’aile du Mfdc, dirigée par César Atoute Badiate et l’Etat du Sénégal fait l’objet de commentaires. Le rôle joué par le chef rebelle condamné par contumace par la justice sénégalaise intrigue.

A Bissau, devant le président d’Umaro Sissoco Embaló, l’Etat du Sénégal et le Mouvement des forces démocratiques de Casamance (Mfdc) ont signé, jeudi dernier, un accord de dépôt d’armes. Selon le président bissau-guinéen, l’accord signé permettra à l’aile du Mfdc, dirigée par César Atoute Badiate, de poursuivre les pourparlers avec les autorités sénégalaises pour «mettre fin à la guerre en Casamance». L’aile dite nord du Mfdc, dirigée par Salif Sadio, n’était pas présente à la séance de signature qui s’est déroulée au palais de la présidence de la République de Guinée-Bissau. Du côté des rebelles casamançais, l’accord a été signé par César Atoute Badiate, leader de l’aile sud du Mfdc.

Pourtant ce dernier a été jugé et condamné à la perpétuité par contumace par la chambre criminelle de Ziguinchor dans l’affaire Boffa-Bayotte, qui avait fait 14 morts. Le juge a émis un mandat d’arrêt international à l’encontre du chef rebelle. Malgré tout, c’est le même César Atoute Badiate, refusant de déférer à une convocation du juge, qui s’est retrouvé autour d’une table de négociation. «C’est un paradoxal. Si on avait suivi la procédure, la personne devrait être arrêtée», analyse Gilbert Koumakh Faye, enseignant-chercheur à la Faculté des sciences juridiques et politiques de l’Ucad. Selon qui, une condamnation par contumace est une condamnation prononcée par un juge à l’issue d’un procès pendant lequel le condamné n’était pas présent. «La contumace ne s’applique qu’en matière criminelle. En matière correctionnelle, on parle de condamnation par défaut», précise-t-il. 

Selon lui, l’article 356 du code de la procédure pénale dispose que si l’accusé se constitue ou s’il venait à être arrêté avant les délais de prescription, l’arrêt de condamnation est anéanti de plein droit. «Aucun conseil ne peut se présenter pour la défense de l’accusé contumax. Toutefois, si l’accusé est dans l’impossibilité absolue de déférer à la citation, ses parents, ses amis et son conseil peuvent proposer son excuse. Si la chambre criminelle trouve l’excuse légitime, elle ordonne qu’il soit sursis au jugement de l’accusé», fait savoir l’enseignant-chercheur. Selon qui, la condamnation par contumace prive le «contumax de certains droits». «L’article 361 dispose sans ambiguïté qu’à partir de l’accomplissement des mesures de publicité prescrites par l’article précédent, le condamné est frappé de toutes les déchéances prévues par la loi. Les mesures de publicité dont il est question dans la loi sont entre autres le fait d’afficher un extrait de l’arrêt au dernier domicile du condamné, à la porte de la mairie de sa commune ou à celles des bureaux de son arrondissement où le crime a été commis», souligne-t-il.

Enseignant-chercheur à l’Université Gustave Eiffel en France, Doudou Sidibé d’indiquer: «Un accord reste un accord. S’il est avéré que César Atoute Badiate a été condamné par la justice, le préalable, c’est de le gracier avant de se retrouver avec lui autour d’une table pour signer un accord avec l’Etat du Sénégal». Pour Doudou Sidibé, certes cet accord pourrait permettre d’avancer dans le processus de paix, mais ne pourrait pas avoir un impact considérable. En tout cas, dans cet accord, la justice sénégalaise semble abusée.  

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