Les morts par arme à feu ont atteint le niveau le plus élevé jamais enregistré aux États-Unis en 2020, première année de la pandémie, ont rapporté mardi les Centres pour le contrôle et la prévention des maladies (CDC). Les homicides par arme à feu, en particulier, ont augmenté de 35 %, une hausse qui a fait payer un tribut sans précédent aux hommes noirs, ont indiqué les chercheurs de l’agence.
« Il s’agit d’une augmentation historique, le taux ayant atteint son niveau le plus élevé depuis plus de 25 ans », a déclaré la Dre Debra E. Houry, directrice adjointe principale par intérim des CDC et directrice du Centre national de prévention et de contrôle des blessures, lors d’un point de presse mardi.
« Nous devons être vigilants et nous attaquer aux conditions qui contribuent aux homicides, aux suicides et aux disparités observées », a-t-elle ajouté.
Plus de 45 000 Américains sont morts dans des évènements liés aux armes à feu alors que la pandémie se propageait aux États-Unis, le nombre le plus élevé jamais enregistré, selon les données fédérales.
Mais plus de la moitié des morts par arme à feu étaient des suicides, et ce nombre n’a pas sensiblement augmenté de 2019 à 2020.
La hausse globale des morts par arme à feu a été de 15 % en 2020, inférieure au pourcentage d’augmentation des homicides par arme à feu, ont indiqué les CDC.
La hausse des meurtres par arme à feu a été la plus importante augmentation sur un an observée dans l’histoire moderne, selon Ari Davis, conseiller politique au Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Violence Solutions, qui a récemment publié sa propre analyse des données des CDC.
Il a déclaré que les chiffres préliminaires suggèrent que les morts par arme à feu sont restées durablement élevés en 2021.
Ventes d’armes et confinements
Les responsables fédéraux et les experts extérieurs ne sont pas certains de la cause de la flambée des morts par arme à feu. La hausse correspond à l’accélération des ventes d’armes à feu à mesure que la COVID-19 se propageait et que les confinements devenaient la norme, ont noté les CDC.
Mais les chercheurs fédéraux ont également cité l’augmentation des facteurs de stress sociaux, économiques et psychologiques, les perturbations des soins de santé courants, les tensions entre la police et les membres de la communauté après le meurtre de George Floyd, l’augmentation de la violence domestique, l’accès inéquitable aux soins de santé et le racisme systémique de longue date qui contribue aux mauvaises conditions de logement, aux possibilités d’éducation limitées et aux taux de pauvreté élevés.
Les meurtres commis à l’aide d’une arme à feu étaient généralement les plus nombreux, et ont connu les plus fortes augmentations dans les communautés pauvres.
Une explication possible est que les facteurs de stress associés à la pandémie de COVID-19 ont pu jouer un rôle, notamment les changements et la perturbation des services et de l’éducation, l’isolement social, l’instabilité du logement et la difficulté à couvrir les dépenses quotidiennes.
Thomas R. Simon, directeur associé pour la science à la division de la prévention de la violence des CDC
Les Noirs américains sont restés touchés de manière disproportionnée par la violence armée en 2020. Le taux d’homicides par arme à feu a augmenté de 39,5 % chez les Noirs de 2019 à 2020, pour atteindre 11 904. Les victimes étaient en grande majorité de jeunes hommes.
L’analyse de Johns Hopkins a révélé que les hommes noirs âgés de 15 à 34 ans représentaient 38 % de toutes les victimes de meurtres par arme à feu en 2020, bien qu’ils ne représentent que 2 % de la population américaine.
Les hommes noirs âgés de 15 à 34 ans étaient plus de 20 fois plus susceptibles d’être tués par arme à feu que les hommes blancs du même âge. Le nombre de femmes noires tuées par arme à feu a également augmenté de près de 50 % en 2020 par rapport à 2019, a précisé Mme Davis.
En hausse dans tous les groupes ethniques
La hausse des taux d’homicides par arme à feu a été observée dans tous les groupes raciaux et ethniques, ont précisé les CDC – sauf chez les Américains d’origine asiatique et insulaire du Pacifique, qui ont connu une légère baisse.
Les suicides par arme à feu ont longtemps été plus fréquents chez les hommes blancs âgés. Mais en 2020, les taux ont surtout augmenté fortement chez les Autochtones.
« Les suicides ont un impact sur une population différente, généralement des hommes blancs d’âge moyen à plus âgés dans les communautés rurales, a déclaré Mme Davis. Nous allons devoir développer différents types de solutions pour faire face à différents types de violence armée. »
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