ChroniquesPape NDIAYE

La Douane et l’Ocrtis, en flagrant délit de Khat

CHRONIQUE DE Pape NDIAYE

La Douane sénégalaise et l’Office central pour la répression du trafic illicite des stupéfiants (Ocrtis) continuent d’interpeller des personnes détentrices de feuilles séchées de khat, sans aucune base légale. Ni le Code des drogues sénégalais, ni la classification internationale faite par le Comité Oms des experts, sur les substances psychotropes, ne classent le khat dans la catégorie des stupéfiants. Pourtant, ce produit a bien fait l’objet d’une étude dans les laboratoires de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (Oms), qui a estimé, dans un rapport, que celui-ci ne peut être considéré comme une drogue. Mieux, le Comité Oms des experts a considéré qu’aucune des substances qui composent le khat n’est susceptible de créer une dépendance chez le consommateur ou d’être nuisible à sa santé.

Et ces arguments soulevés par des avocats ont poussé la Chambre d’accusation de Dakar a ordonné la libération de toutes les personnes jusque-là emprisonnées suivant cette procédure. Le dernier cas est l’affaire Samba Thioub, du nom du secrétaire permanent de Rewmi mis aux arrêts alors qu’il s’apprêtait à récupérer un colis contenant 21 kg de khat. Sa libération compromise par un pourvoi du parquet général qui, curieusement, exerce, pour la première fois, son droit de recours en de pareilles occasions. Toutes les précédentes décisions de libération ordonnées par la Chambre d’accusation n’ayant jamais été frappées de pourvoi. Il y a eu des ressortissants djiboutiens et éthiopiens, des femmes sénégalaises et d’autres personnes détenues dans les prisons sénégalaises pour les mêmes faits. Et c’est d’ailleurs de justesse qu’un incident diplomatique a été évité entre ces pays et le Sénégal. Leurs ambassadeurs ayant, en son temps, saisi notre pays pour des explications sur l’arrestation de leurs compatriotes étudiants détenteurs de khat.

Dans cette histoire, tout porte à croire que le silence incompréhensible des autorités compétentes qui se refusent à dire halte à la Douane et à l’Ocrtis, semble encourager cette forme d’abus. Personne n’a élevé la voix pour décliner la position tranchée du Sénégal par rapport à la question, histoire d’harmoniser les positions contradictoires des juges et des officiers de police judiciaire. Les premiers libèrent les détenus en considérant que le khat n’est pas une drogue (voire affaire ministère public contre ressortissants djiboutiens et éthiopiens), les autres continuent d’opérer à des arrestations.

Les juristes sont clairs : c’est une «violation flagrante de la loi» par l’Ocrtis et la Douane car ces arrestations ne reposent sur aucun fondement juridique. La loi s’en trouve ainsi violée par ceux-là même qui doivent en être le gardien. Mieux, les acteurs de la Justice sont unanimes à considérer qu’aucune disposition légale ne peut être invoquée par ces deux entités pour justifier les arrestations systématiques opérées sur des personnes détentrices de feuilles séchées de khat. Ces emprisonnements en l’absence d’élément légal, un des éléments constitutifs d’une infraction, viennent violer le «principe de la légalité des peines et des infractions» qui voudrait qu’il y ait une loi qui prévoit toute infraction. Aujourd’hui, il semble que la Douane a compris la position des juges sur la question et c’est ainsi que les soldats de l’économie, qui ne procèdent plus à des arrestations, font appel aux éléments de l’Ocrtis.

A-t-on besoin de rappeler que le khat représente en Afrique de l’Est ce que la cola symbolise au Sénégal ? Dans ces pays situés sur la corne de l’Afrique, les feuilles séchées de khat sont utilisées par les élèves et étudiants pour féliciter la mémorisation, tout comme elles sont utilisées pour servir de thé. Admis dans plusieurs pays européens, les Pays-Bas et le Royaume-Uni en autorisent l’importation, le commerce et la consommation. Il ne fait l’objet d’aucun contrôle dans plus de dix Etats européens qui considèrent qu’une consommation modérée de ces feuilles séchées n’a pas d’effets nocifs. Enfin, il ressort des conclusions de l’Oms que le principal composant actif de la plante, la cathinone, se dégrade lorsque la feuille se dessèche. Ce qui signifie que les feuilles doivent être consommées moins de 48 heures après avoir été cueillies pour obtenir les effets désirés. Ce caractère  périssable ne représente-t-il pas un frein au trafic de khat ?

Par Pape NDIAYE
Chef du desk Actualités Walf Quotidien

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