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LIVRE DE SIDI LAMNE NIASS. «L’Etranger parmi les siens » : un titre, de prime abord, paradoxal

L’étranger c’est celui qui vient d’ailleurs ; qui n’est pas chez lui, qui est en dehors des siens. Celui qui est parmi les siens ne peut plus être considéré comme un étranger. Dans un discours prononcé lors d’un baptême, Sidy Lamine Niass utilisait le terme « gaan (invité) » pour désigner le nouveau-né. L’invité est celui qui n’est pas chez lui alors même que l’enfant était chez lui, dans sa maison. L’invité est étranger où il est. L’étranger dont il s’agit ici est un étranger au sens métaphysique du terme; comme pour dire que nous venons d’ailleurs, d’autre part et que la terre n’est pas notre demeure. L’étranger parmi les siens induit une compréhension politique et culturelle. L’étranger politique ici désigne celui qui ne possède pas la nationalité du lieu où il se trouve physiquement. Celui qui est parmi les siens est d’abord le Sidy Lamine Niass du Sénégal qui est dans le pays de ses ancêtres dont il possède la nationalité. L’étranger culturel est celui qui ne retrouve pas ses valeurs dans l’administration modelée et façonnée à partir de l’héritage colonial. L’autre Sidy Lamine Niass parmi les siens est cet homme qui est de culture arabo-musulmane au cœur du monde arabe.

sidi

Pourtant, malgré les valeurs qu’il épouse et qu’il partage, il est perçu comme un étranger, un venant d’ailleurs. Il n’arrive pas à être parmi les siens dans un sens à la fois culturel et politique. C’est là tout le problème qui fait sens pour lui, le multiculturalisme et l’intégration. Où se sentira-t-il chez lui ? Le métisse (culturel ou ethnique) est-il condamné à toujours être étranger parmi les siens comme pour l’enfant métisse dont la mère vient d’ailleurs alors que le père est un autochtone ; et vice versa. L’étranger parmi les siens peut évoquer cet enfant métisse mais Sidy Lamine le spécifie dans son combat. Il s’agit de l’intellectuel arabophone («nongol dara») qui ne trouve pas sa place dans l’administration du Sénégal. L’étranger parmi les siens n’est pas, comme l’auteur aime à le rappeler, redirigé vers son histoire personnelle mais représente tout une communauté. Un jour, au cours d’un voyage à Kaolack on lui demandait les raisons qui lui faisaient dire que les « nongol dara » n’ont pas leur place dans la société alors que les privilèges envers les communautés religieuses crèvent les yeux. C’est très clair, Sidy parle des intellectuels arabophones que la société ne veut pas intégrer au sein de l’Etat et à qui on préfère tendre les mains pour des prières. Une manière pour l’auteur de souligner que l’Islam a sa place dans la politique et dans l’Etat, au-delà de sa dimension spirituelle.

archives

Une pensée qui s’inscrit dans un contexte mondial

Sidy Lamine remet en question les fondements établis dans la modernité ethnocentrique et qui cherchent à universaliser un modèle façonné sous le nom de la vérité. La langue et l’éducation (occidentales) en bandoulière, cette société a été marginalisant totalement les intellectuels arabophones. Sidy Lamine rejoint beaucoup de penseurs de notre époque qui considèrent que les intellectuels arabophones ont été laissés en rade. Qu’ils soient doctorants importe peu, si la langue du colonisateur n’est pas sue. Ceux qui sont en mesure de critiquer la vision ethnocentrique de l’Occident, de remettre en cause ce modèle préétabli sont relégués à l’arrière-plan.

Moustapha Diop, journaliste, faisait remarquer dernièrement à la télévision que les sociétés demandent de plus en plus un retour  aux valeurs. Sidy Lamine Niass tente de relayer l’appel du peuple qui ne se reconnaît pas dans ses Institutions.

Une critique comme le fait remarquer une philosophe est nécessaire mais ne peut suffire à changer les choses. Sidy Lamine propose un modèle islamique avec un idéal de vie et des principes face à un autre système de pensée importé. Il répète souvent comme pour marquer l’importance, la répétition étant pédagogique,  que l’islam est constitué d’écoles et de débats.

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