Face à l’intransigeance de Bamako de libérer ses soldats accusés de mercenariat, la Côte d’Ivoire a annoncé le « retrait » progressif de ses troupes de la Minusma.
La crise politique qui perdure depuis cinq mois entre la Côte d’Ivoire et le Mali, prend un nouveau virage. Le ministre ivoirien délégué aux Affaires étrangères avait déjà donné le ton le 28 octobre lors de son entretien avec le secrétaire général des Opérations de paix, Jean Pierre Lacroix.
Le gouvernement ivoirien est passé à la vitesse supérieure le 11 novembre dernier en confirmant au bureau du secrétaire général adjoint aux opérations de paix des Nations Unies, le « retrait progressif » de ses troupes de la Mission multidimensionnelle intégrée des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation au Mali (MINUSMA).
« La relève de la compagnie de protection basée à Mopti et le déploiement des officiers d’Etat-major (MSO) et des officiers de police prévus en octobre 2022 ne pourront plus être effectués », explique la mission permanente de la Côte d’Ivoire à l’Onu. « De même, poursuit la note consultée par APA, la Côte d’Ivoire n’envisage pas relever en août 2023 les militaires et autres éléments présents au sein de la Minusma ». A la date du 1er juillet 2020, la Côte d’Ivoire était le 7e contributeur de militaires à la Minusma, avec 816 soldats.
Tensions entre Abidjan et Bamako
Cette décision intervient dans un contexte de brouille diplomatique entre Bamako et Abidjan, suite à l’arrestation par les autorités de la transition malienne de 49 soldats ivoiriens, le 10 juillet à l’aéroport international Modibo Keita Bamako-Senou. Accusés de mercenariat, les militaires ivoiriens ont été inculpés vendredi 12 août pour « tentative d’atteinte à la sûreté de l’État » par le Procureur de la république près le tribunal de grande instance de Bamako VI au grand dam d’Abidjan.
La Côte d’Ivoire a immédiatement exigé leur libération sans conditions, indiquant que les soldats arrêtés sont inscrits au fichier de l’armée et sont déployés au Mali dans le cadre d’un mécanisme de soutien de troupes onusiennes connu sous le nom de NSE (éléments nationaux de soutien).
Une mission de médiation ouest-africaine, sous l’impulsion du Togo, engage des discussions entre les deux parties et parvient à faire libérer trois femmes parmi les 49 soldats, assurant que les pourparlers se poursuivraient pour la libération des 46 restants. Mais coup de théâtre, au lendemain de ce qui ressemblait à un début de dégel, le Colonel Assimi Goïta, recevant le ministre nigérian des Affaires étrangères, exige en contrepartie l’extradition de personnalités maliennes qui se sont réfugiées en Côte d’Ivoire.
Abidjan dénonce « un chantage » et une « prise d’otage » et saisit dans la foulée la Commission de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (Cédéao) pour arbitrer le différend avec son voisin du nord. À cet effet, une session extraordinaire est convoquée par le chef de l’État bissau-guinéen, Umaro Sissoco Embalo, président en exercice de l’institution à New York, en marge de la 77e Assemblée générale des Nations-Unies.
Au terme de leur réunion du 22 septembre, les chefs d’État ouest-africains exigent la libération des soldats ivoiriens et décident d’envoyer à Bamako « une mission de haut niveau » constituée de trois présidents dont les résultats de la visite au Mali le 29 septembre, ne sont toujours pas connus du grand public.
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